Welcome to the world of Infosys Engineering! It is a half a billion plus organization that takes pride in shaping our engineering aspirations and dreams and bringing them to fruition. We provide engineering services and solutions across the lifecycle of our clients’ offerings, ranging from product ideation to realization and sustenance, that caters to a cross-section of industries - aerospace, automotive, medical devices, retail, telecommunications, hi tech, financial services, energy and utilities just to name a few major ones.

November 12, 2018

IIoT - Industrial Internetization - Impact on Organizational Structures

From Internetization of people, we have gradually moved towards Internetization of industry. For an industry, organization itself and its competition, both are in a state of flux, and getting reshaped dramatically with the evolution of IIoT Ecosystem. As an outcome of converting non-living products into intelligent, connected and communicating smart devices, a not so envisaged scenario of transformation of organizational and operational structure has automatically started. Organizational structures built over previous three industrial revolutions, have started crumbling with the dawn of 4th Industrial revolution. 

While change has been a norm across all organizations, manufacturing industry has received most lethal hit till date. As Jeff Immelt (GE CEO) pointed out way back that every industrial company must become a software company, and rightly so, massive transformation across manufacturing companies have already begun. Without focusing on external implications (Strategy, Competition, Industry structure and Industry Boundary) which the world of IIoT is bringing in the world of Industry, an observation of internal implications for an Industrial organizations bring following pattern very visible - 

 1. Classical model of manufacturing company being divided into departments like R&D, manufacturing, sales, marketing, finance & IT would give into new models where practice of periodic hands-off across departments would be replaced by continuous co-ordination across functions.

2. As a result of products becoming intelligent, relationship between organization with its products and its customers is becoming continuous and open ended now.

3. Data would drive decisions in place of whims and fancies of individuals.

4. Traditional centralized model of command & control of management would be challenged by rich data and real time feedback. 


       There are number of below mentioned noteworthy shifts providing enough indications on how the industrial companies would evolve and how their organizational structure would go through massive changes -

  1. IIoT driving pervasiveness of IT - IT has already started assuming more central role in R&D or Engineering activities which has been the work of core R&D department till now. With the need to embed IT hardware and software in the product itself to make it smart, IT has become pivotal to R&D activities. Only time will tell if we shall continue to have R&D and IT as two separate departments or one would be made responsible for other or vice versa. Truth is, need to create smart and communicating product has ensured that there will hardly be any R&D without IT anymore.
  2.  Industrial Dev-Ops - With product becoming intelligent and connected, there is a continuous feedback loop which has come into existence with products relaying all the key information to its creators. In order to understand, manage and drive value out of this communication loop, similar to Dev-Ops model of IT, Industrial companies are exploring collaboration mechanism between teams responsible for product development and product support/operations. Aim is to reduce product release cycle, to provide better customer services and to get and understand the actual on ground feedback on products through IIoT ecosystem. Concept of Digital Thread is a step in this direction only.
  3.  Data Organization - Data is the new oil of the economy and same holds true for and industrial company as well. With millions of sensors, IIoT ecosystem generating data at enormous speed and scale, getting strategic value out of the data would remain a big challenge. In view of this, there would be an effort towards creation of data specific entity responsible for collection, consolidation, analysis and bringing in the insight aspects of right data. Appointment of Chief Data Officer across organizations is a baby step in that direction itself.
  4.  Consumer Management - Smart connected products through IIoT ecosystem has the capability to drive and deliver the value in PAAS (Product as a Service) model. It would be imperative to monitor product usage and performance data to understand the value being provided to consumer and mechanism to improve this further. Traditional sales & service teams are not equipped to cater to this changing scenario. Would there be a separate group responsible for managing consumer relationship in the world of IIoT? Only time shall answer this question.


For an Industrial organization, it is a journey from 'here' to 'there'. Organizational structures efficiently catering to the world of IIoT are yet to come. Changes are huge, while skills are very limited. Whether the structure would involve setting up separate business units, or to answer the change through amalgamated cross functional mechanism, or through COE routes, organizational structures will change for sure.

In this new world of IIoT, things have started speaking between themselves, and, with us as well. Very often, things speak softly, but at times, so loudly that it is not only organizational structure which will be shaken to the core, it is possibly our societal structure itself which may start reshaping someday, because, IIoT is not an evolution, but a revolution. 

September 7, 2018

Address condition monitoring and predictive maintenance challenges in the Aerospace Industry with Krti 4.0

Let's begin this blog post with a story. A man wanted to learn how to swim. He began by speaking to a few people about it and reading a few books on swimming techniques before heading to the lake. But, there began his problem: While he practiced the motions and went through every movement and stroke he had read about and discussed, he was still unable to keep his body afloat. Frustrated, he looked around and saw a person enjoying a leisurely swim in the middle of the lake. He waited for the swimmer to come ashore and asked if he could teach him how to swim. Soon, with a few lessons, the man was swimming by himself in the lake.


The message of the story is: It is easier to learn from a practitioner than a theoretician. This approach applies to almost every scenario that requires individual knowledge coupled with the guidance of someone who has traversed the path to successfully accomplish something. Now, swimming may be a simple skill to learn and, in the story, the investments needed were time and money spent on a few interactions and purchasing the right books. But what if an enterprise wanted to enhance its operational efficiency at an organization level? Here, the investments would be much higher and the ROI would need to be well-defined.


Take the example of aerospace and defense, a technology and investment-intensive industry burdened by strict safety and regulatory requirements. This industry needs stringent quality and production measures for consistency, reliability and high performance. The success drivers for organizations in this industry are high product quality and operational efficiency. From a theoretical point of view, the following levers can help organizations achieve manufacturing and operational efficiencies:


  • Intelligent management of critical shop-floor assets such as time-sensitive raw-materials, kits, molds, tools, and the workforce
  • Sophisticated algorithms powered by AI and data analytics that suggest next steps by sending out context-aware alerts and recommendations


Much like the earlier story about swimming, these levers look great on paper. But, without alignment with a practitioner's perspective, these may be insufficient to achieve the desired goals. So, how does one find the practitioner's view? This is possible by accessing processes and frameworks developed by organizations that have already deployed reliable systems with assured performance along with data prediction and connectivity between assets to collect data. In fact, I think that could actually mean the difference between the success and failure of any transformation program.


Condition monitoring and predictive maintenance - A practitioner's view


KRTI 4.0 is an AI-based operational efficiency framework developed by Infosys and Pöyry by leveraging decades of industry experience working with global organizations. This framework enables aerospace OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers to deploy a system that significantly enhances the reliability of operations and maintenance on the manufacturing shop floor. The KRTI 4.0 framework is unique because it leverages the different expertise areas and key operational experience of Infosys and Pöyry to provide a practitioner's view:


  • Pöyry specializes in reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) modeling and engineering design for different industrial processes. Its dynamic RAMS models are based on effective use of Industry 4.0 technology and backed by intense field knowledge of asset behavior
  • Infosys leverages its rich engineering experience gained by working with different aerospace OEMs as well as its knowledge of manufacturing practices to create knowledge, operational and maintenance models coupled with data analytics and AI-based resolutions. These models form the backbone of the KRTI 4.0 framework, providing condition-based and predictive maintenance at the shop floor level rather than at an individual system level.


As a framework, KRTI 4.0 differentiates itself from other condition monitoring and predictive maintenance solutions by offering a comprehensive shop floor-centric view based on reliability rather focusing on asset availability. This unique capability enables OEMs to schedule maintenance, resources and inventory based on reliability assessments. Moreover, decision makers gain a 360-degree view of risks associated with anomalies in terms of business, human and environmental safety.


Connect with us to get real-world guidance on how to improve the operational efficiency of your organization. 

September 6, 2018

Krti 4.0: Reasserting the Relevance of Knowledge Modeling

Seamless knowledge management is a problem that many organizations grapple with. Consider how, in traditional engineering, knowledge about industrial systems and processes often reside within software code and documents, and with domain specialists. Many times, such knowledge is lost when domain specialists retire or are redeployed or when software applications are upgraded or replaced. Software migration itself poses significant technical challenges as it is often difficult to understand the logic of knowledge embedded in software applications. Further, documents describing business logic are sometimes not updated, resulting in incomplete capture and processing of business knowledge.

I strongly feel that problems related to the loss of critical business knowledge can be easily alleviated by capturing, representing and processing such knowledge in a manner where the lifecycle of the product and process is properly managed. This is where intelligent knowledge modeling comes in.

Breaking down knowledge modeling

Simply put, an ontology is a set of object types, objects and relationships as well as the attributes of objects and relationships. Knowledge models based on ontology structures can theoretically capture, represent and process infinite amounts of data associated with a system by using objects, relationships and attributes. An ontology representation can also deterministically connect the ontologies with external systems such as databases and downstream systems in order to take relevant actions.

Here is an illustration of a knowledge meta-model:



Here is another illustration of a knowledge model that is an instantiation of the above meta model:


When knowledge is managed using such models, it greatly enhances product development by accelerating the design and development of new and similar products from existing designs.

Knowledge models can also be used to improve the problem-cause-resolution process in maintenance and operations. The illustration below demonstrates how this can be done:



Solve business problems with comprehensive knowledge modeling

Infosys and Pöyry have collaborated to create KRTI 4.0, an industrial solution to help companies capture and represent embedded knowledge around problems, symptoms, root causes, and resolutions. The KRTI 4.0 framework uses knowledge models to provide a host of tools such as dashboards, graphs and alerts for clear problem resolution lifecycles. These help users such as plant managers, supervisors and technicians to understand and interpret both static and real-time aspects of the system. These knowledge models are particularly useful for enterprises in the power, oil and gas, paper, and automotive industries that must capture knowledge across multiple plants and data across multiple systems to gain insights about problem identification and resolution.

Learn more about how KRTI 4.0 can help your organization capture knowledge to solve business problems faster.


August 7, 2018

Creating a Peer-To-Peer Connected World of Cars with Blockchain and IoT Synergy


Leading automotive giant, Toyota recently announced the development of a slew of proof of concepts on IoT and blockchain synergy. Toyota has leveraged blockchain technologies such as smart contracts, Ethereum based distributed ledgers, and data from IoT sensors in these proof of concepts.

By doing research and creating PoCs, Toyota and other original equipment manufacturers have developed ecosystems in which end consumers and enterprises can perform a number of functions in a secure manner. These include,

•Management of peer-to-peer ride sharing and car sharing transactions

•Storage of information on vehicle usage, which can be used in usage-based insurance

•Sharing of driving data to map road and traffic conditions

In this blog post, we discuss peer-to-peer ride and car sharing.

A car ride or share transactions is a use case to monetize cars by selling or sharing rides, and cargo space. It also includes leasing out of vehicles on a peer-to-peer basis without a centralized authority, such as a vehicle aggregator or rental agency.

This can be done by leveraging the advances in blockchain and IoT, and these advances have the potential to disrupt established players and replace their central trust systems with a blockchain-based distributed ledger and de-centralized systems.

Continue reading "Creating a Peer-To-Peer Connected World of Cars with Blockchain and IoT Synergy " »

July 26, 2018

Digital Transformation - Where are we headed?

Continue reading "Digital Transformation - Where are we headed?" »

July 18, 2018

Connected Cars - The Telematics Journey ahead....

The auto industry is going through rapid evolution. The need for speed and fuel efficiency, traverse all types of terrains, and navigate in increasing traffic is pushing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to build vehicles with improved power, torque, and speed. As cars get built with increasing technological sophistication and intelligence, the core business of OEMs is shifting from car manufacturing to transportation.

The era of the connected car was launched in the 2000's when the first infotainment systems found their way onto car dashboards. The navigation display and entertainment audio systems got OEM's thinking beyond machines, and scrutinize the business of transportation - moving people and goods from one place to another. Transportation involves planning and execution of a journey. And planners are usually bombarded by a host of questions, which method of transport to choose? For instance, should it be by road, air, or water? If the mode of transportation is road then what vehicle should be chosen, car, bike, or bus? If the choice is the car, then the next question is on the route to be taken, what could the weather be, if it is snowing, then should the vehicle have winter tires, where will the vehicle be parked, when should the vehicle be refueled, where are the fuel stations and how far apart are they, and just some of the questions to be answered.

The rise of smartphones has enabled drivers to connect to the internet via tethering. Technologies such as MirrorLink, a device interoperability standard that offers integration between a smartphone and a car's infotainment system, have started making their way onto the car dashboards, and OEM's have now found a way of connecting the car to the rest of the world. OEM's, as well as Tier1 car companies, have started investing on building their own telematics platform. This is a comprehensive ecosystem of communication and consists of sensors, instrumentation, wireless communications, and more. As almost every industry begins to understand the potential of connected devices we are in a new era where IoT platforms are paving the way for M2M communication. BMW's Connected Drive, Audi Connect, Toyota's Touch 2 and Ford SYNC are a few prominent examples.

Most of the cars today use tethering connectivity through the phone to connect to the Internet. Few have already started on the next phase with inbuilt Wi-Fi.  Big OEM's are already working on Data Communication Modules, built for e-call and disaster recovery, and for telematic services such as remote diagnosis, infotainment gateway, and others. Market studies predict that by 2030 the connected car will expand revenue in the automotive industry by about 30 percent.

With the possibility of faster and dedicated internet connection within the car, and access to data becoming simpler, smartphone apps will have a key role in the future which will start shifting the automotive industry from vehicle manufacturing to transportation, and then on to mobility. This will lead to the emergence of new services,

Pre - Journey - Route planner, send2car, insurance - driver behavior, pay-as-you-go, dealer locators, rent-a-car, carpooling, calendar integration and more.

Journey - Maps, real-time traffic updates, weather updates, fuel station locators, parking garage, Point of interest , follow me, Over the air upgrade , voice recognized apps and services, find-my-car apps and more.

Post Journey - Trip analysis, social networking, share-the-trip, maintenance and service, service reminders, driver tips, etc.

Looking at these services we can expect connected cars to reshape the automotive industry and the business model for OEM's in unexpected ways. OEM's will longer be able to thrive by manufacturing the best cars but will need to plan on how to incorporate them into a highly connected world.

Continue reading "Connected Cars - The Telematics Journey ahead...." »

July 5, 2018

Shifting towards computing at the edge

Last week, Microsoft announced that Azure IoT Edge is now generally available for release. This is a powerful addition to Microsoft's IoT portfolio that includes - Azure IoT Central, IoT Hub and a host of solution accelerators. 

Before we unpack the specifics of Azure IoT Edge, let's take a step back to understand why edge computing is critical. Here are a few key reasons that would support business needs,

  • Low latency especially in scenarios that require real-time responses and decision-making. For instance, in a pedestrian detection system, which cannot wait while the data is sent to the cloud, then make a decision and take action. Here the need is to base action on real-time analysis
  • Computing is based on available data instead of historical, business process data, or external data sources. This saves on bandwidth, unnecessary computing on the cloud, and privacy. For instance, shutting off a device based on threshold value is not dependent on location, device attributes, and allows for decisions to be made locally
  • Proprietary protocol protection through integration with a plethora of protocols that have been developed over the years. This is especially true in industrial scenarios. Computing at the edge helps in protocol adaptation and filters noise out of the data
  • Lack of reliable connectivity requires computing at the edge, storage and a forwarding mechanism. For instance, if there are deployments in remote locations where connectivity is not always on

Continue reading "Shifting towards computing at the edge" »

May 30, 2018

Bringing Connected Transportation to India

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) as a concept, has revolutionized the way different industries have been operating, tremendously improving the operational efficiency and hence the productivity. The integration of sensors into the existing industrial environments helps in the remote monitoring of the systems, thereby reducing human intervention and facilitating real-time, non-real-time and near real time interventions. By introducing sensors into conventional systems and using the Cloud platform to gather all this voluminous data and analyzing it, the age old industrial assets can be turned into building blocks of a connected Smart Community.

One such area is the railroads network. This blog post by Vinod (http://www.infosysblogs.com/engineering-services/2018/01/all_aboard_the_smart_train.html#more ) gives an overview of the potential of such as platform. Among the different modes public transport, railways would be the best bet to implement an IIoT solution, since we already have a dependable and exclusive infrastructure in place and only a specific type of traffic to tackle, unlike the road transport.

Consider the Indian Railways, one of the largest in the world, yet one of the least safe. The official report for 2015-16 reveals some shocking statistics ( ). Let's try and fit an IoT solution in the context of Indian Railways and try to analyze what it takes to turn our Indian Railways into a smarter system, prioritizing passenger safety over anything else.

There are two aspects of passenger safety - one is about the train itself (with all the passengers and their baggage) reaching the final destination safely and the other is about each passenger having a safe and comfortable journey inside a coach. Let us consider the different factors leading to both these aspects of passenger safety -

1)      A safe journey

Every year hundreds of lives are lost in train accidents, and the sad fact is that most of them are due to recurrent mistakes and human error. A majority of these accidents are due to -

a)      Manual signaling errors
b)      Unmanned level crossings
c)       Lack of timely track maintenance
d)      Sabotage

All of the above can be effectively tackled by using an integrated Cloud platform solution (E.g. EdgeLINC from GET https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20171024005536/en/GE-Transportation-Unveils-EdgeLINC%E2%84%A2-Software-Advances-Industrial). The locomotives would have sensors that continuously gather information about different parameters like speed, position, temperature of different parts etc. and send it over to the Cloud where rule based analytics is run on this data, resulting in signaling information. This information would be more accurate and can be used to automate the signaling process, with zero human intervention. It can also be used to control the unmanned level crossings. The locomotives can also have a crash hardened system (something like a black box in an aircraft) that can be used to save all the event logs for further analysis. These will give meaningful insights into the actual cause of the accidents in cases where the root cause is difficult to ascertain using the existing means.

The record of the health of tracks can be used for preventive maintenance of tracks, minimizing the chances of derailment.

2)      A comfortable journey

The safety of the passenger and baggage within a coach is another important aspect because most of the trains operated by Indian Railways run for more than 24 hours through different vulnerable areas. Major security concerns are -

a)      Theft
b)      Air quality within the coach
c)       Medical/Police assistance with minimal delay etc.

One solution could be to have cameras in the coaches that would inhibit thefts. Given the number of coaches and that there are numerous compartments within a coach that have to be monitored, the choice of cameras and their numbers should be decided considering the trade-offs. This would generate huge volumes of data, and so the duration of syncing them with the Cloud etc. has to be considered.  Cameras can also be used to discourage unsafe passenger movement in and out of moving trains.

Air quality sensors that would help check the levels of harmful gases should be installed within the coaches. The data from these sensors could be used by simple rule based analytic engines onboard the locomotive, to warn about the likely presence of smoke or poisonous gases and other potentially dangerous pollutants.

All this information about the safety features within a coach and SOS services of doctors or Police can also be made available to every passenger via a mobile app.

Safe modes of public transport is the need of the hour especially in a growing economy like ours. We already have advanced technology packaged into a solution that can be applied to railways. GE Transportation (GET), one of the world leaders in railroad transportation, is working on the idea of Transportation Intelligence which is suite of a number of IoT solutions aimed at making railroad transportation more efficient and safe. Infosys is collaborating with GET on many of these cutting edge solutions. It includes equipping the locomotives with hardware capable of storing different events, cameras to continuously monitor the surroundings and the loco pilot's cabin, high performance computing platform to connect with the Cloud, event and rule based analysis of real-time data etc. More details can be found at https://www.ge.com/digital/industries/transportation .

With proper planning and political will, we definitely can turn Indian Railways into one of the safest in the world. 

May 22, 2018

Will ACES transform the future of our mobility?

ACES - is the new acronym on the block in the automotive industry. It stands for Autonomous Connected Electric and Shared mobility. Of course, these trends are already reshaping the industry in many ways. When you think about each of these trends - they are undergoing a transition or maturity. For instance, Autonomous driving has been evolving through Passive Driver Assistive System such as seat belts to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as Forward Collision Warning, Pedestrian Detection and such. Connected systems have evolved from basic safety systems (think OnStar) to advanced infotainment systems that are integrated with a larger ecosystem. Hybrid electric to fully electric vehicles, with advances in battery technology to combat driver anxiety. Shared mobility continues to evolve from ride hailing to car sharing to ride sharing with variants in each one of these models as well. 

The perspective is very different depending on your vantage point in the value chain however one thing is for certain that the future presents a tremendous opportunity landscape for all the players. The value chain itself is the palette on which many of the non-traditional players are differentiating to design and amplify the value delivered to the end 

Continue reading "Will ACES transform the future of our mobility?" »

May 11, 2018

Hannover Messe 2018: Observations, Thoughts, and Learnings


Co-author: Ramchandra Kulkarni - AVP, Head of Engineering Services, Europe

Hannover Messe Industries (HMI) is the world's leading trade show for industrial technology. And we were glad to be there. The recently concluded event displayed an undeniable emphasis on the convergence of IT, complex mechanically engineered systems, industrial IoT platforms, and new business models. Despite an overwhelming bias favoring open collaborative systems large technology providers continued to push single technology integrated solutions. We wondered if this would cause monolithic systems to re-emerge and whether security challenges would stymie open collaboration. We came away with a perspective informed by our conversations with decision-makers and influencers, thankfully, in favor of open systems.

Solutions were the trend at the show. Though most exhibits were only technology and concept demonstrators they attempted significant integrations across the value chain. Most provided clear evidence of collaboration between technology OEMs, domain experts, and system integration partners. The emphasis was clearly on digitization which was showcased using themes that involved integration, connectivity, and collaboration. We saw exhibits that dealt with Industrial Automation, Digital Factory, Platforms and Integrated Energy Systems. Unsurprisingly, servo and autonomous drive technologies emerged as key drivers of digitized and integrated manufacturing. Smart energy systems focused on energy efficiency were also on display. An exhibit that truly impressed us was one involving a robot that worked in conjunction with a couple of 2D cameras connected to a CAD data system. Though simple in appearance this system proved the concept that digital (CAD) data could be used in real-time to direct a robotic system to retrieve physical objects recognized on the basis of their digital CAD geometry. Similarly, we saw the use of additive manufacturing to repair a large industrial die driven completely by information from the die's digital CAD data. These exhibits were fully integrated, connected, and showcased collaboration of cyber-physical systems in achieving non-trivial manufacturing results. We call these 'Hello World' applications of digital concepts - applications that bring to life, with simplicity and clarity, a complete digital interaction.

The exhibits at HMI 2018 displayed an urgency with regards to digital transformation that begun tentatively but promises to accelerate rapidly. And though this transformation cuts to the heart of how products are conceptualized, engineered, manufactured, sold, and maintained - the accelerated nature of this transformation will present bountiful opportunities only to those who are "ready" to participate. The solutions on display underscored the realization that technology is not an end, but a means to an end; it is an enabler. When used to integrate, connect, and collaborate, technology has the potential to help unlock value.

Attending HMI gave us a few interesting ideas on how we should present ourselves at future events. One is that we should bring together various horizontal service lines to develop complete and compelling digital threads. These threads would provide evidence of integrating processes involving product selection, definition, engineering, manufacturing, after-market operations, and maintenance. Such a thread will involve multiple technologies and thus multiple service lines. These jointly developed concepts can be the start of a 'go-to-market' strategy developed in collaboration with service lines, and such internal collaboration will drive success. Some themes around which these collaborations could be imagined are:

  • Solutions that address challenges of the installed base of a particular industry: The business objective here is to extend the life of past investments; also known as brownfield.
  • Solutions that demonstrate connectivity, collaboration, and integration of open technologies: Bringing together next generation user interfaces coupled with engineering and business analytics based on AI, ML and augmented by RPA can be powerful demonstrations of problem solving and our systems integration prowess.
  • Solutions that are built in a consortium approach: Next generation solutions that have business merit will be mostly built in partnership with technology partners, consulting partners, and domain experts. Exhibits that showcase partnerships demonstrate our ability to think laterally and work collaboratively. Tangible evidence to potential buyers of our evolving maturity from a pure play service integrator to a true partner.
  • Solutions built in participation with students from partner institutes: This has far reaching optical and soft implications. It showcases our investment in reskilling the work force of tomorrow. When done in geographies like the Americas and Europe we can expect a multitude of returns in the future.
  • Solutions that demonstrate new development paradigms: We must exhibit the end result of our approach to unpacking and solving problems. Each exhibit should include the outcomes of Design Thinking, the elements targeted and managed in discovery and developed in sprint, and a hierarchical view of architectural constructs like cloud, micro-services, industrial platforms, and enterprise systems. At a trade show, this demonstrates competencies at play.

We look forward to the next Hannover Messe in 2019, where we can truly showcase our brand proposition, 'Navigate Your Next' for industrial manufacturing.

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