The Infosys global supply chain management blog enables leaner supply chains through process and IT related interventions. Discuss the latest trends and solutions across the supply chain management landscape.

May 26, 2017

Integrated Vehicle Diagnostics Solution in Automotive Aftermarket


Ravindra Hunagund, Lead Consultant, MFGDCG, Infosys Ltd.,

Swapnil Vijay Akolkar, Lead Consultant, MFGDCG, Infosys Ltd.,

Saurabh Sharma, Senior Consultant, MFGDCG, Infosys Ltd.,

Snigdha Goyal, Consultant, MFGDCG, Infosys Ltd.,

Independent workshops have traditionally struggled to keep pace with OEMs and authorized workshops on vehicle diagnostics, tools & technology, vehicle electronic information and quality of service / parts. With EU commission systematically introducing regulatory amendments, such as the EU regulation 566/2011 which mandates the manufacturers to release and share the vehicle related electronic data for identification of exact service parts for the vehicles, a level playing field is being created where the independent workshops and authorized workshops would have to battle out to get the aftermarket share by serving varying needs of the customer. This blog brings out an integrated automotive diagnostics solution that will assist independent workshops in being competitive against the authorized repairers in this ever changing scenario.


Globally, the aftermarket is emerging as a new lucrative area for OEM's revenue as 15% of OEM revenue comes from aftermarket business, which represents 70% of OEM profit. The automotive aftermarket is mainly divided into two broad categories: authorized repair shops (dealerships) and independent workshops. The authorized repair shops are part of the dealer network providing servicing solutions, warranty programs and consuming original parts whereas independent workshops are less expensive alternative to authorized repair shops. OEMs have lost 3% of their global market share in 2015[1]. This has been possible due to the following factors:

1. Release of electronic data of repairs: According to this EU regulation 566/2011, the manufacturers in Europe automobile industry are obliged to release and share the electronic data so that an accurate identification of service parts can be done for the vehicles. The independent workshops would now have unrestricted access to the electronic repair and diagnostics data as is the case with the authorized repair shops. The ultimate goal of this regulation is to provide enough choices to the customer and encourage competition at all levels of the automotive aftermarket value chain.

2. Availability of diagnostics tools: Next generation diagnostic tools have enabled the independent workshops to service and maintain vehicles from various different brands with the same level of service quality as that of an authorized repair shop. The technicians are able to point out the exact problem in the vehicle and save time and cost for both the workshop and the end customer.

3. Collaboration with other service providers: Non-traditional players in the automotive aftermarket such as fleet operators, insurers and leasing firms are signing agreements with independent workshops, to lower their costs and channel the customers to only the contractually agreed upon independent service providers.

The market for diagnostics scan tools can be segmented as given in the figure with software based repair tools showing the most promising growth rate of 7.5% by value. The market and future for diagnostics tools looks very promising as the growth rate of the automotive diagnostic end-to-end scan tools market is projected to grow globally at a promising CAGR of 5.6% from 2015 to 2020, growing from US$3.83 Billion in 2015 to US$5.02 Billion by 2020.

Current Challenges

Challenge#1 - Lack of E2E Diagnostics: Due to absence of any single integrated aftermarket solution for fault diagnostics to parts ordering, difficult problems lead to reduction of the workshop profits and which in turn leads to backlogs which can potentially damage the overall customer satisfaction. It has been estimated that these problem cars have the potential of costing workshops $24,750 of lost business in a year

Challenge#2 - Increasing Vehicle Complexity: It is estimated that a modern vehicle has the computing power equivalent to the system which had guided the Apollo astronauts all the way to the moon. 72% of workshop owners feel that keeping up to date about the latest vehicle technologies and electronic systems is challenging

Challenge#3 - Local Fault codes to OEM codes mapping: OEM's fault codes to independent diagnostic fault codes mapping is inconsistent. If these advanced workshops are to compete with the main dealers, they would require a combination of the following three things: Getting OEM-trained skills, technology and all the vehicle information

Challenge#4 - Lack of clarity in ordering parts for given faults: Due to high level of inconsistency between the fault diagnosis and the parts required for rectification, incorrect mapping of OEM parts numbers to independent retailers there is a higher rate of parts return/re-ordering

Point of View Solution

The challenges faced by the independent workshops can be tackled by using cloud based end to end diagnostics solutions that provide a common platform for scanning a vehicle, detecting faults, ordering parts, publishing reports and generating invoices for the customer. To tackle all the challenges discussed in the previous section, Infosys based on a client engagement and market study proposes a cloud based diagnostics solution as below:


1. Workshops can service vehicles across multiple vehicle brands without having to train the technicians especially for any make or model. Having a single guided workflow application from fault detection, correction, technical data, parts ordering till invoicing can save cost and effort for the workshop and the customer

2. Tool can be accessed over laptop/ tabs/ smart phones and can be connected to any vehicle via a VCI (Vehicle Communication Interface)

3. The workshops should be required to just purchase VCIs and license for the tool and pay based on the subscription taken.

4. The tool can pull together data from multiple databases for getting repair, maintenance, diagnostics, faults-parts mapping, parts and other such information on a single platform, saving both time and cost for the workshop and the customer

5. A comprehensive diagnostics with intelligent fault-tracing can list down all the faults detected on the vehicle within minutes of starting the scan giving the technician a strong starting point towards servicing and repair of the vehicle

6. The tool can be linked with distributor's part catalog for parts selection and ordering

7. The customer can look at the readings from vital measures of the vehicle and get a printed report of the complete diagnostics

8. The tool can monitor the Telematics data transmitted from the vehicle and post maintenance alerts to the customer

9. The tool can also send scheduled maintenance alerts to its registered customers to increase customer satisfaction levels and have longer customer retention period


With favoring regulatory changes towards release of proprietary repair data, advancement of technology in diagnostics tools and reduced TCO owing to cloud based IT solutions, independent repair shops market is perfectly poised for benefiting from integrated solution covering diagnostics, fault tracing, symptom analysis , parts recommendation, integration with parts distributor's ERP and provide billing options. While a few solutions exist in the market currently, there is a definite chance to focus on extending the capabilities (Pass Through, predictive maintenance etc.) and providing end to end solution targeting repair shops giving them a competitive edge against authorized dealers.


April 19, 2017

APM - It's time for Performance Appraisal for Assets

Performance Appraisal? ...for Assets? Does it sound different? Yes, this is the closest analogy I could relate to Asset Performance Management (APM) / Asset Health monitoring, which is much talked about now a days. Employees are valuable assets of an organization. So are the production assets such as Equipment and Machinery which are also playing vital role in the well-being of an Industry. APM is the concept focusing on the performance of individual assets (Equipment, machinery, transportation vehicles, etc.) on their real time performance, downtime, and their efficiency and maintenance parameters. Some of the examples of APM tools are from GE, Schneider Electric etc. Though APM is not so new, it started getting traction in recent days due to fast pace technological advancements such as Big Data, Internet of Things, Machine learning, Smart Systems and Cloud computing. In this blog we will surf through the concept of APM, its latest trends and benefits.

Continue reading "APM - It's time for Performance Appraisal for Assets" »

January 18, 2017

Flying on Cloud with EAM

Cloud computing is impacting us in various forms and means in our day to day life in recent times. We may miss to realize the fact that the Social Media application such as Facebook, Twitter and You Tube we use day in and out are utilizing the Cloud computing technology to manage the vast user community across the globe. Cloud computing paved the way to provide the stake of Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS) and Software (SaaS) as hosted services, which are being capitalized by Business giants who use Internet as the working ground. We are seeing lot of developments happening on this technology where eventually we may enjoy 'Everything-as-a-Service' in near future.

This disruptive technology has invaded all facets of our life, not leaving the asset management business function alone. In this blog, I wanted to take you through a virtual tour on EAM on cloud.

Continue reading "Flying on Cloud with EAM" »

July 12, 2016

Be ready for the drone invasion @ warehouse!

We have seen a burst of new technologies in supply chain area. Drones, advance of robots in workplaces, Internet of things (IoT) are becoming a reality. Time is ripe to induce more technology into core operations of supply chain like warehouse operations, yard operations and so on. Here I would like to discuss on how to capitalize advances made in drone technology can add value in warehouse operations. Drones are also personal interest of mine as we had experimented with a small drone in our home few years back.

Traditional warehouse managers have always been looking for ways to improve productivity of the operations and people in warehouse. Drones can significantly improve warehouse operations in the area of inventory management, yard management and safety of the warehouse. Drones can be put into use in
1. Annual stocking: In a warehouse the storage locations and pallets are bar coded. Drone which has a scanner can scan the location to confirm its position then scan the pallet label to confirm the item and quantity. Frequency is yearly and involves the entire warehouse.
2. Cycle counting: Its similar to annual stocking as the operation involves going to location and confirming the item and quantity. Cycle counting involves fewer locations in a warehouse and the frequency is few times a day.
3. Track Trailers in Yard: In large yards its time consuming to identify trailers, drones can be of big help here. They can sent out for "search operations" in a yard and using the camera in the drone operators can hunt for trailers.

Pros for using Drones:
• Increase productivity in physical counting and cycle counting. Productivity can be improved by a factor of 2X or 3X.
• Overcome safety challenges, as taking physical counting in high rack locations involves using both forklifts and humans which increase chances of accidents.
• Drones can perform the work faster and also be more accurate.
• Drones can also be used for searching and finding inventory.
• Drone can also be used for searching trailers / trucks vehicles in large yards of the warehouse.

What type of warehouse can be early adapters for Drones?
Retail, Third party logistics warehouses are ideal for Drones usage. These warehouse are typically large sites, with high rack locations which are bar coded. The warehouse layout is like typical street block with aisles and locations marked.

4 Steps to put Drones in Action:
In order for the warehouse to take advantage of drones following things are necessary
1. For Drones to move independently within the 4 walls of warehouse, the key requirement is to have physical warehouse map with details of all the aisles, rack locations and other details.
For this the crucial input is to have warehouse map which has the co-ordinates of each location. A geodesic survey of the inbound and outbound areas of the warehouse needs to be done. Warehouse map is created with x, y, z co-ordinates of all the locations. Site survey can be accomplished by civil surveyors by working in non-peak or non-work days in 6 to 8 working days. Warehouse physical map is fed into drone software. Drone can navigate using the warehouse co-ordinates. In my previous project implementing Locanis WMS we had enabled Forklift guidance system in a large warehouse.
For Indoor referencing  to increase the positional accuracy of the drones we can use beacons. The way I envisage this is we place beacons in aisles and pathways of warehouses. So whenever drones pass these beacons it will publish the exact positional co-ordinates which can be then be used for navigation.
2. Drone needs to be equipped with a scanner which can scan various bar codes stickers of different bar code standards like EAN, UCC.
3. Once the drone scans the data it needs to communicate to the WMS system or a custom software which can capture the location and inventory.
4. Drones need to communicate using a different frequency, as warehouse have other equipment's like forklift terminals, Hand held terminals, RFID devices using Wi-Fi.

Challenges for Drone usage:
• Drones can be used for inventory management functions in Full pallet areas. Using them in Carousels, multi deep pallet locations, Pigeons holes are going to be challenge.
• Warehouses which do primarily Cross docking, Break pack are also not suitable for drone operations. As the inventory is fast moving and mostly in ground locations.
• In order for drones to work in warehouse operations we need to have robust "anti-avoidance" technology. This is an important factor when drones and humans have to work in the same environment.

4 steps for inducting drones  as discussed above can form the basis of inducting drones into warehouse operations. In the near future we would be seeing more drones in warehouse working along with humans. Pretty soon I think we will see "Drone operator" as one of the job titles in warehouses across the world. Welcome to the world of warehouse drones!

Continue reading "Be ready for the drone invasion @ warehouse!" »

June 23, 2016

Supplier Diversity Reporting in Utility Industry

An year of perseverance, hard work, intense discussions and night outs has come to an end and the results, I would say, have been impressive. In fact, the go-live for this transformational ERP program was the smoothest one I have witnessed in my 10 year long career. The client was from utility industry located in Las Vegas & had a customer base of approximately 2 million including residential, commercial and industrial customers .They provided natural gas service to parts of Arizona, Nevada, and California. The program was to modernize the financial and supply chain systems along with providing a robust reporting solution which would not only meet their reporting needs but also cater to the various regulatory reporting requirements of the utility industry. I was very closely involved in various aspects of developing a reporting solution for the client and the area of reporting which caught my attention was 'Diversity Reporting'. In this blog I will try to explain what Supplier Diversity Reporting is all about and how we addressed these reporting needs for our client.

Continue reading "Supplier Diversity Reporting in Utility Industry" »

November 4, 2015

Demand Driven Supply Chain- Bridging the Gap by Flowcasting

Supply chain planning is the core need for any retail brand in the today's world. In order  to gain better visibility of their own Supply Chain, companies have started investing a lot into planning solutions. The driving point for such investments is to gain accurate visibility of material flow across the entire supply chain. Many solution vendors exist to address these kinds of solutions including SAP, Oracle or JDA. Even though lots of organizations have such planning solutions, yet the main question for any operations team still remains: - "In a forecast driven supply chain, where should be our demand point and how to control bull whip effect due to variability in customer demand?" (i.e between various nodes in the supply chain from supplier till retailers).

Continue reading "Demand Driven Supply Chain- Bridging the Gap by Flowcasting" »

September 30, 2015

How will Future Maintenance be?

Tomorrow's enterprise would want to limit their efforts, energies and expertise to the areas of their core competency rather than dwelling on non-core areas. When we look at asset intensive organizations, most of these firms would want to stick to their area of expertise i.e. manufacturing/producing products of value. So, these organizations can spend their resources and energies in innovating and manufacturing products and leave the supporting areas to the experts in those areas like how IT implementations are not carried out in house as it is not their core competency.

Continue reading "How will Future Maintenance be?" »

April 16, 2015

Internet of Asset Maintenance

Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the hot topics much discussed in various forums these days. IoT is considered to be an influencer in transforming the way Objects interact with external world. This arouses a curiosity to know how it influences the Asset Maintenance business function as well. A point of debate is that - 'is it a new concept which can improve the maintenance process or is this something we already do in a different way'. A comparative analysis on the basics of IoT and on the latest trends in Maintenance processes can help to find an answer for this debate.

Continue reading "Internet of Asset Maintenance" »

March 30, 2015

Aspects of Shutdown - Pre & Post Audit

Now that we have seen all the key factors/phases for a successful shutdown such as the scoping, kick off, identification, safety and procurement. A successful execution of shutdown should start with an audit and should be followed by an audit. Let us dive deep now.

Continue reading "Aspects of Shutdown - Pre & Post Audit" »

March 27, 2015

The Expert Talk Predictive Analytics

Predictive Analytics in the area of Equipment Reliability has been a key focus area within Enterprise Asset Management(EAM) practice in Infosys. Thought papers, frameworks and real-time project experience to reinforce the subject knowledge did not limit us in our pursuit of seeking the ultimate in this domain. Bringing you one among many such pursuits- our interaction with Yuri Gogolitsyn. Read on as Yuri take us through some un-traversed areas within in the domain of Predictive Analytics.

 About The Expert

Yuri Gogolitsyn is an experienced EAI Technical Architect and Consultant who has worked on numerous multinational projects and  has substantial hands-on experience with many leading integration technologies with exposure to real-time assignments involving predictive analytics. He is based out of the UK and before moving into the professional IT was doing brain research dealing with statistical processing of the brain electrical signals.


Welcome to the first edition of Expert Talks, good to have  your with us today. Could you please share with us your tryst with Predictive Analytics?

Thank you! First of all, I think that Predictive Analytics is still much more a research area than a set of tools or products capable of providing quick and immediate solutions to emerging requirements in various industries.

Quite a while ago, before moving into the professional IT, I was doing a scientific research in the area of the brain science. My main interests were, to state it very briefly, in using statistical methods to detect and evaluate brain electrical responses to various stimuli (pictures, words etc.). As a rule, the responses were tiny and buried in the unavoidable background variations and noise. The goal was to obtain a statistical proof that the response actually exists at all and to provide some estimate of the extent it is consistently repeated when you present the same stimulus under the same conditions. This is just one of the examples of a more general area of Pattern Recognition. I believe that Predictive Analytics belongs to the same general area. This area is really huge both in terms of classes of problems it deals with and methods used.


Brain science and its relation to statistics seems fascinating! Do you think we can relate this concept to an Equipment response as well?

 Yes, in fact the concept finds its application in a wider scope. Look around and you will see the science of correlations in all possible aspects of things.  For example, when analyzing large amounts of data on the contents of the supermarket baskets the researchers recently found that when a person buys baby's diapers, there is a good probability that this person would also buy some beer. It was a bit of a surprise! An immediate pragmatic recommendation from the study would be to keep both items close on the shelves to make it more convenient for the customers. However, the researchers did some more digging and found an explanation for this unusual effect. It turned out to be due to young fathers whom their wives ask to buy diapers for their baby on the way home from work. It often implies that the husband expects to spend evening at home with his family, so he also buys beer for himself.

 An example from a completely different area - the width of the annual growth rings on the tree stumps strongly correlates with the annual number of fatalities from heart attacks. However, there is no causal relationship between the two observed variables in this case. The actual driving mechanism underlying this effect is the annual variations in the solar activity.

In the context of Equipment, an example would be to note a response against parameters such as load, pressure, rotations per minutes etc. and try correlating it with the failure pattern. With the objective of optimizing equipment performance, one can study these specific parameters and try channelizing it towards a safer zone. This way, we essentially work on a need based maintenance as we know whether a failure is imminent and could avoid the pit fall of overdoing the maintenance activity.


If you want to describe the Predictive Analytics to a novice in this field, how would it be?


The logic underlying Predictive Analytics could be outlined as follows. A combination of parameters is repeatedly measured for a system under observation. At some moment in time an important event occurs due to an unknown reason - the system noticeably changes its behavior in some way (e.g., breaks or stops functioning). Over a substantial period of observation a large volume of data on the values of parameters that precede the important event's occurrence has been accumulated. The question to answer is to what extent it is possible to predict that the important event is imminent by looking at the current values of the measured parameters.


One fundamental aspect should be stressed here - the repeatability of the important event.  It is impossible to predict events that are unique or occur very rarely indeed - statistical methods just do not work under such scenarios.  On a lighter note, this is nicely illustrated by the following joke.

A University professor is conducting a seminar on telekinesis. He explains to his students that telekinesis is an ability to move objects using just one's will power and says:

-          Let's now all close our eyes, concentrate for one minute and try moving ourselves outside this room into the corridor.

In a minute they open their eyes and are very surprised to see that one person is missing! The professor, stunned not less than his students, asks them for comments. One of the students is doing a course in statistics. He says:

-          I am not sure you would be able to prove that this effect is significant using statistical methods...


 Which industry according to you  would have the most requirements of Predictive Analytics?

Everyone would like to know the future!  The quality of prediction benefits from the careful statistical analysis of the available data. Unfortunately it may often be the case that even the very large volumes of data do not allow prediction with any usable degree of confidence - we do not know if parameters we are monitoring indeed have the required predictive power. You are unfortunately not guaranteed a success when you start dealing with a prediction task. A very good example in this respect is a long history of attempts to predict earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. We are still very far from where we ideally would like to be in this area. You really need not have to put this in an Industrial perspective.


Based on your experience, could you please tell us about the tools/software widely used in the field of Predictive Analytics? Is there a best -of- breed solution available?

There is a huge number of packages for the statistical data analysis available. You can do a lot in Excel, for example, regression models. You can try the machine learning algorithms or even neural networks. In addition to this, there are online courses available on latest analytics tools such as DataStream, Hadoop etc. which can be tried as well. However, I believe that the tools used should be chosen after considering the nature of the problem in details.  You should decide on the approach first, and then pick up the right tool. Also, to work in Predictive Analytics a very good understanding of statistical methods and models is required.


You mentioned about the models, could you please elaborate on this? Is there a best of breed which one can pursue in this regard? According to you, what are the key determinants/factors to ensure accuracy of analysis?


To make a prediction you need a model. A model here is a very general concept. Depending upon the approach and techniques you use the model could be explicitly presented as a formula (e.g., regression models) or, like in neural networks, be not directly visible - embedded in the structure of connections between the neurons in the network. The outline of the general approach used in Pattern Recognition is as follows. Use some part of the data to build a model. Then test the validity of your model by feeding it the data from the other part.  The second step shows how good your model is.

In addition to this, The Data to be analyzed needs to represent an actual behavioral pattern or a trend which can be analyzed using a statistical model forming a basis for drawing meaningful conclusions. It is therefore essential to gather data from a real scenario.


The data gathering aspect is becoming more promising as we move towards the Internet of Things. Utility companies have now started offering the home hubs enabling their domestic customers to monitor energy consumption and control home appliances remotely from smartphones, say, switching on the heating some time before arriving home. Actually, Infosys was already involved in integration aspects of one of such projects.


Everyone is talking about the transition to Strategic Maintenance Practices and the Prescriptive Maintenance practices lately, what are your thoughts on this?

 If we are talking about Prescriptive Maintenance of some expensive equipment in utilities etc., I think that the organizations that should look in this direction are the companies that actually make the equipment. They are in the best position in terms of being able to collect vast amounts of data from many installed pieces of this equipment. They also should have a better understanding of what needs to be monitored. This increases chances of success. 


I am a bit skeptical about quick success in scenarios like "It costs me a lot to maintain my three expensive gadgets/widgets, and one of them failed recently causing me a lot of problems. How nice would it be to use the Predictive Analytics to warn me when one of my gadgets is close to failure? Those guys need to tell me what exactly I should start monitoring. I am sure there are some best practices somewhere".


So quick result is a challenge, what are the other challenges you think one may face while approaching a Predictive Analytics Solution?


From just a task it may develop into a serious research project that would start consuming all your time. Do not expect readily available best practices and universal recipes. You will need to understand a lot about the target process. It takes time and many iterations until (with substantial degree of luck) you arrive to something usable. Furthermore, the most common pitfall I would suggest any analyst is be wary of is generalizing an Asset class, in I think generalizing an Asset class across domains are also not intended. Another common problem I have seen companies struggling with is having huge set of data and having no clue on what to do with them. A predictive data analytic model cannot be generic, it differs case by case. For performing predictive analysis in Asset Management, each Assets specific information needs to be viewed specifically and the asset specific predictive factors determined accordingly.


What are your thoughts on the heavy investments which this area entails? something which Predictive Analytics is infamous for!

I need to make it clear that I am on the side of skeptics in relation to Predictive Analytics, those who tend to believe that the number of scenarios where it is potentially possible to provide a prediction with a reasonable degree of confidence is rather small, definitely much smaller than the number of scenarios where it is not possible. The best negative example we all know about is prediction of the share prices.

The investments in this area should be probably considered as spending on research and development. Usual considerations are valid here - the investments are heavy indeed and in no way they guarantee the desired solution. However, I think that the beneficial side of heavy investments in research is clear - it may lead to better technologies, algorithms etc. that would have much wider usage and substantial benefits.


Besides investments on research, do you think there are other avenues of higher spends which the organization should watch out for?


Certainly the investment cost are higher, the early adopters of predictive analytics would certainly have challenges in substantiating the cost. The investments could range from gathering Instrumentation controls and analytic tools to the company personnel who need to get trained on the using the technology and deciphering the results to act on them. However, looking at the advantages in terms of catching failure before it causes beyond repair damages, the investments seem to be promising.


What would be your advice to Organizations attempting to go the Predicative Analytics route?


Be ready for a trial and error approach albeit at a smaller scale, have some experts who has good qualification in statistical computations. I have often seen companies providing research grants to universities, there is a cost advantage to this. Collaborating with equipment manufacturers also helps as they bring in a consolidation of   data to cover the expanse of operational scenario which is a must thing in predictive analytics. Role of Equipment manufacturer and critical component (e.g. Bearing, Bushes) manufacturer are key and should be partnered with, in the journey of Predictive analytics. Every equipment and machine is different and unique therefore developing predictive analytical model would turn out to be very time consuming and costly at times.
Above all, you also need immense patience to succeed in this domain.  Never expect to master the art and also do not expect a radical result. Taking things one at a time would help and yeah -All the Best!

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