The business world is being disrupted by the combined effects of growing emerging economies, shifts in global demographics, ubiquity of technology and accountability regulation. Infosys believes that to compete in the flat world, businesses must shift their operational priorities.

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March 29, 2007

Anti-Money Laundering: Bridging Regulatory Compliance and Data Integrity

by Balaji Yellavalli

I got many interesting responses to my previous blog stressing the role of technology “engines” in meeting emerging regulations related to Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and illustrating the collateral benefits of such moves on customer experience.

I envision two critical “calls to action” especially in the context of regulations such as AML, Know Your Customer (KYC) and others that keep popping up every time a new and perverse way to engage in criminal activity is uncovered.

One, financial institutions need a strong “Unified Compliance Solution” (UCS) approach to integrate seemingly disparate compliance-monitoring activities across global lines of business. A UCS approach not only helps in linking apparently unconnected transactions to establish a potentially suspicious pattern and file a “Suspicious Activity Report “(SAR) with the regulators. It reduces time for investigation and focuses staff energies in going after the “bad guys” as opposed to disrupting genuine day-to-day transactions. A UCS also helps in integrating customer data which could help in gaining better insights into customer behavior, for improving customer experience and ultimately, customer satisfaction.

Infosys’ experience with leading financial institutions has borne out the fact that while Regulatory Compliance may be the impetus for a UCS, it is not the end game. A well-designed UCS can be leveraged for competitive advantage and ultimately, for winning in the turns, based on superior customer insight!

I know a top Wall Street Firm that consistently outperforms the competition by combining regulatory compliance initiatives with customer data integration. It is in an enviable position today because of investing ahead of time in aligning and unifying disparate silos of organizational information across their global operations. 

The second call to action: it is assumed, when we discuss such topics, that the quality of transaction data generated by a firm’s systems is clean and reusable for further analysis. Unfortunately, it is not always the case.

As the complexity of transactions, coupled with their global spread increases, so does the scope for errors in collating and reporting. Independent studies by leading analysts have estimated that the business losses due to poor transaction data quality are in the order of US$1 billion to US$ 1.5 billion on an annual basis. It is ironical that financial institutions are actually losing money due to poor maintenance of data and information within their organization, far from making money from information! Hence, it is important to install strong data quality systems as an intermediate step before building the UCS engine.

March 26, 2007

Anti-Money Laundering in a Flat World

by Balaji Yellavalli

Recently, I attended a conference on “Money Laundering” in New York. I was surprised to meet more than 500 people representing banks, financial institutions and government agencies on a cold Monday morning to discuss a topic that one would normally associate with the underworld! Well, to be fair, the conference was to discuss the emerging regulations to curb Money Laundering or “Anti-Money Laundering” (AML) as they are collectively known.

How is AML relevant in a Flat World? Well, just as there are benefits of the flattening world, there are unscrupulous elements in society that take advantage of business and technology advances to perpetrate financial crimes. Money laundering is potentially the tip of the iceberg – it may be a conduit that feeds into international corruption, drugs and in the post 9/11 world, terrorist financing. In other words, fraud can be an unanticipated outcome of the Flat World, if regulators and the private sector do not work together in a timely fashion to detect and weed out the bad elements of society.

Interestingly, this conference was the sixth or seventh in an annual series and elicited active participation from well-known top tier global banks and investment firms as well as US regulators from Washington DC. A leading Swiss Bank executive said on a panel that they use “Artificial Intelligence” based algorithms to sift through terabytes of customer transaction information to detect suspicious patterns and uncover potential wrongdoing. At the same time, the bank maintains the classic “Swiss” tenet of privacy and customer anonymity. Well, I can imagine how difficult and complex it can get!

I may be wiring some money from the US (where I live) to India (where I was born) to invest in a holiday home for the family. I may have done that after juggling my savings, e.g., selling a portfolio out of my retirement accounts or liquidating my time deposits held with US banks. So how do the regulators and banks ensure that this is a genuine transaction? Do they know that I am just an innocuous consultant working for a large global professional services firm or a front for some other suspicious person or transaction? Not to scare you, but it illustrates the challenge government agencies and financial institutions face in linking the myriad, seemingly ordinary transactions that people conduct in the course of their daily lives, to suspicious and potentially dangerous activities.

The challenges can be a minefield, fraught with financial risks for banks and financial institutions.

Now, going back to the Swiss bank illustration, it is about mining existing customer transaction data globally and across the enterprise to uncover patterns; how does one go about doing that?

A client executive from a leading global financial institution recently put this matter in perspective by illustrating the challenge of opening new customer accounts:

It is now imperative to institute strong regulatory checks while on-boarding new accounts to ensure they are not being set up for future abuse – a requirement of the “Know Your Customer” or “KYC” regulation in the US. On one hand, it can mean much bureaucracy and paper work for an existing customer, who, say, wants to open a new private wealth management account with the institution. However, it can result in genuine customers being turned off, especially if these customers already have deep relationships with another line of business within the same financial institution! So, out through the door goes an opportunity for increased lifetime revenue and worse still, one has annoyed a customer for good!

The solution - leverage technology to integrate all pertinent information about a customer’s relationships across lines of business and ensure the institution has one view of such information. It will avoid duplicate requests for data from the customer and accelerate on-boarding. Also, it will enhance the relationship with the customer and improve his/ her experience with the institution, ultimately impacting positively on the institution’s revenue/ profitability and hopefully, better customer retention!  As my client put it, “The engine that we build on top of existing silos of data is very critical to establishing a single view of customer information” – and therefore making money from existing information.

It is true that in a Flat World, such “engines” that run sans friction on top of existing platforms spewing disparate transaction data are absolutely de rigueur.  While all this seems and sounds relatively simple, in practice it is certainly not!

March 22, 2007

FlatWorld CIOs: Bringing Discipline to Innovation

Consider this: Apple is credited with one of the best product innovations: The IPOD. Apple has one of the lowest R&D spending as a % of sales. It prefers to keep $12 Billion in cash instead. Now consider this: several underperforming consumer product companies today directly blame their lack of performance to their lack of direct investments in R&D and Product Innovation. My friend and colleague Sanjay Saigal, ex-Unilever and Sr Principal in CPG Solutions says “It’s not about innovation, It’s about a process of disciplined and profitable innovation with a clear method of getting a healthy payback on the (total) investment”…..”Aha, I exclaim, I have met a few CIOs who have been doing this for ages!

The IT world has always struggled to articulate the value of its investments. CIOs have been beaten up by the CFO and forced to produce detailed business cases. “Why do you want to standardize the platforms? How much will that add to the bottom-line?“ – the CFO asks. At the same time, certain company CIOs have developed strong processes within the IT organization to justify investments in new business-technology ideas and gained the confidence of the CFO. These forward-looking CIOs, lets call them Flat-World CIOs, are defining a path of discipline in their own world of innovation. The business world, CEOs, COOs and CFOs should take a leaf out of our flat-world CIOs books on how to manage profitable innovation across the company.

The CIO of a large midwest-based retailer has instilled a rigorous discipline of business cases in every IT project that his large and extended IT organization undertakes… and I mean really elaborate business cases. Tremendous thought and brainstorming goes in with senior business and IT leaders in the same room in detailed debates on how to quantify benefits and costs of a particular initiative. So whats new?…it’s the rigor and discipline of filtering and managing Business-IT ideas. The sheer effort that goes into their projects is sometimes frustrating for the stakeholders involved (including us) but looking back at the projects undertaken there in the last 4 years, I can say that it works.

“We have plenty of fantastic business ideas…our challenge is figuring out which ones to execute and how to execute” -  the CIO of a large and successful CPG company explained. “So we can keep discussing these ideas but we have to put hard numbers against each and then quickly decide which ones to do and get them done…and forget about the rest of the ideas for the time. The funnel has to narrow down quickly as the clock is ticking”.

Another Retail CIO has instilled a fantastic portfolio management strategy (something that actually works) for new projects defining checkpoints or gates at key junctures which are important to figure out which projects are to be abandoned and which ones to be taken forward at every stage of the project..

That does not mean all CIOs do is to make the process difficult and the ideas that survive the rigor make it through while others suffer. Some CIOs have developed an intuitive knack of evaluating new ideas...Almost like venture capitalists.

For example, some CIOs I met in the last 4 weeks have been excited by a joint solution offering from Infosys and MediaCart geared towards improving consumer connects and enhancing shopper experience. Essentially what we’re talking about is a smart shopping cart that knows where it is, where it’s been and what’s in it, and can interact with the shopper by means of a forward mounted LCD display and push button interface. By providing the ability to deliver context-relevant content when it matters most, and supply basic shopping assistance such as “find item” and expedited check-out to every shopper, the solution gives retailers and manufacturers the ability to do things for the consumer at the point of purchase that they have not been able to do before. It is a win-win business model for shoppers, CPG (manufacturers) and retail organizations alike.

Given the power of this idea and the low cost of piloting it, this has received instant encouragement and pilot sponsorship from CIO’s…. faster than I would have initially imagined. No rigorous business-cases here since the benefits are clear.

All the above mentioned CIOs are raising the bar for the prioritization, filtering and focusing process for IT. There are failed projects once in a while, but the key is that the portfolio management and process management strategy helps ensure overall success. The companies above are known for their technology-led business innovation in their own industries. The rest of the corporate world should take a page or two out of the discipline and process that these flat-world CIOs have inculcated in their innovation eco-system.



March 16, 2007

The Future of Consumer Lending

by Balaji Yellavalli

My past couple of blogs on peer-to-peer lending and the innovations driven by that model seemed to have generated some interesting debates; some folks did agree that information is the currency of the new economy with e-bay like models becoming main stream. Another school of thought felt that such business models may not prove to be a significant threat to traditional Financial Services firms.   Let me try to address the latter view here by broadening the landscape a little bit.

With the US mortgage market being what it is now and even unsecured “managed” loan portfolios across various hues of lenders – from Banks to Credit Card Issuers - under pressure, there are clear signs that the sub-prime borrower (borrowers who present higher credit risk) will no longer be courted by large lending institutions.

There are two consequences of this: One, the sub prime or marginal borrowers will still need money (more than 40% of loans disbursed over past one year have been in some kind of sub-prime category) and increasingly they will turn to peer-to-peer lending vehicles. So if I am a lender who has the appetite for risk, I will probably lend at a usurous rate to these marginal borrowers, live with the risk of defaults and may be even make a net recovery, post charge-offs, higher than traditional investment channels. 

And the kicker is that I will pick my data elements, make my own informed decisions, demand more transparency and get it from companies like Prosper! (See previous post on this).  As time progresses, I will settle into an equilibrium and may be even diversify to other channels.  But the point is that I will go with a vehicle that provides me a frictionless, transparent platform to build my own risk-reward model!

The second consequence – having said that sub prime borrowers will be forced out of the organized market, there are still loads and loads of sub prime portfolios, which have been turned into mortgage backed securities by hungry investment backs, to feed an even hungrier beast called the hedge fund industry!

So what will happen to these as defaults start hitting the roof?

We are already seeing a domino effect of investment bankers trying to get these securities off their books or revoking purchase contracts with loan originators. But what if peer-to-peer sites find a way to securitize loans? Leaving aside regulatory implications, what would be the impact on the market? Hordes of “private” or individual investors would probably flock to such a portal to diversify their risks and, as transaction sizes increase, may be even larger hedge funds, who anyway do not want to invest in all that big, hairy IT infrastructure would jump on to the band wagon!

I was hence not surprised when the client CIO in charge of e-Commerce for a large Bank mentioned that peer-to-peer business models are the biggest threat to the traditional, organized financial services industry!

May be the day is not far when we will have Prosper and YouTube tying up to post videos of I-Bankers, Private Equity biggies and Hedge funds, pitching for selling or buying their portfolios – a truly Flat World scenario and what is more -  they will stop circling the Earth in their private jets and may be contribute to a Greener World, not just a Flat World!  

March 14, 2007

Innovations in Consumer Lending

by Balaji Yellavalli 

After my previous blog, many people asked me why I think “peer to peer” lending models are the harbinger of the Flat World in consumer Finance and Investing.

Well for one, this is financial democracy and micro-credit at its best, where borrowers and lenders share information free of cost rather than pay for it! Relevant borrower information content is “pushed” by the borrower herself (albeit vetted by an intermediary, but they do not charge the lender or borrower, instead make money off the completed transaction) to the lender and the lender, in turn, gets to pick and choose the jig-saw of data elements relevant to her risk profile.

While disintermediation was brought to us by the internet, business models like peer-to-peer lending have broken down traditional barriers to entry into lending and investing, flattened hierarchies of decision making by simplifying the rules of the game through intelligent configuration and eliminated knowledge and information asymmetries (In the US, another prominent Insurance Company has popularized such e-simplification through its “Even a caveman can do it” series of ads!).

I do not have to be a qualified banker or a credit analyst at a credit card issuer to make a decision on whether I want to lend money or not, sitting right in my living room! Sure, I am risking my money, but I am risking that at my terms! One could also call this web 2.0 for a Flat World – more about that in a later blog.

Secondly, this is all about building loyalty through innovation as opposed to the traditional “stick-with-us-because-we-offer-superior-service compared to the competitor round the block.” Business model innovation is attracting a distinct category of borrowers and investors, who keep returning, based on their positive experience. I talked about the borrower who wants money to re-invest in Prosper – that to my mind is a great example of loyalty harnessed through innovation!

Bank of America conceived a unique “Keep the change” program , based on matching the spend from a checking account upto a certain limit in the first year and adding that to the customers balance – a cool way to pay back the customer and promote new checking accounts rather than offering “free checking” or “free ATM access” which its competitors do.  ING Direct is another example of harnessing Flat World innovation to grab market share in a lugubrious market for Time-Deposits.

And finally, peer-to-peer lending is a Flat World story, because it offers a great way to race ahead of competition when the industry is down, essentially enabling the Financial Institution to win while its competition copes with industry downturns.

Peer-to-Peer Lending in a Flat World

by Balaji Yellavalli, AVP and Head of Solutions, Banking and Capital Markets Business Unit

Recently I visited a website called, a site that calls itself “The online marketplace for people to people lending”. Simply put, it is the e-Bay equivalent of consumer finance wherein people who want money post their need on the site and willing lenders then bid to finance all or a portion of that debt. But the simplicity should not be mistaken for the sophistication that lies under the covers.

The prospective borrower lists his or her credit rating (determined by the company, based on past repayment behavior of the person, credit reporting agency evaluation, etc.), debt to income ratio and the interest rate he or she is willing to pay and the purpose of the loan or where the funds are expected to be deployed.

Add to this, other bells and whistles, like the ability to build a portfolio of “units” of debt across categories of borrowers (I believe the minimum unit is $50), or lenders’ ability to pick a combination of risk (e.g., pick only homeowners AND those with verified bank accounts). The company makes money from commissions or transaction fees, akin to e-Bay. Right now, it is a site open only to US Residents. I have heard of another site called which serves the UK market.

I think this model offers a glimpse into the future of consumer lending in a Flattening World! I would go so far as to say that this is the emerging model of “peer-to-peer” investing in the Flat World– apparently, some companies are using rates of return for certain risk categories to benchmark returns from other classes of investments, including mutual funds, hedge funds, ETFs etc!

Peer-to-peer lending may not be a big force today in terms of transaction size, volume or market share. With loan sizes on Prosper’s site ranging from $5000-$15,000 and a most recently reported annual revenue figure of less than $2 million, it is at best a micro-player. But the fact of the matter is that it is creating a non-traditional and sustainable channel for marginal borrowers or borrowers whose end uses may not be justifiable for a traditional unsecured lender like a credit card issuer. One borrower wants to repair frozen pipes in his home, the other wants to consolidate high cost credit card debt…and hold your breath, a third wants to reinvest in the company, borrowing others’ money!

Peer-to-peer lending is attracting a distinct category of borrowers and investors, who keep returning, based on their positive experience.  It offers a compelling model with the potential to challenge established players in the so-called “sub-prime” lending space.  No wonder that a client of mine, the CIO in charge of e-Commerce for a large Bank, recently mentioned that business models like peer-to-peer lending are the biggest threat to traditional, organized financial services industry!

Customer Experience, not merely Customer Service

I have been discussing the topic of innovation with different executives in Infosys this week.  And one thing that comes across strongly in these discussions is that companies need to focus more on improving customer experience.  Many are improving call center service levels, others are enhancing product attributes, but very few are actually looking at what customers want and designing their offerings with that as the primary objective.

For example in telecom, how can service providers transform my experience as a customer with their service?  How can they add personalized service so that I no longer think of them as dial-tone providers but service providers?  When I travel from Bangalore to San Francisco, my service provider already knows that I am in SF based on my cell signal.  Why not automatically turn off the ringer at night for all calls except for emergency calls from family, so that I am not woken up by people who didn’t know that I am in a different time zone?  Or, why not have a recorded message saying that it is 3am my time and ask whether the caller really wants to wake me up for the call?  Or, from a corporate perspective, why not use location information for corporate asset tracking (leaving aside privacy issues for the moment), since most devices have wireless chips these days? 

Services such as these would dramatically enhance my experience with the service provider, making me a more loyal customer, well, at least until other companies start offering the same.  At that point, my service provider would need to think of even better ways of improving my experience.

Same applies in the financial services space – companies that see beyond current models and innovate the entire customer experience are gaining traction.  According to Balaji Yellavalli, AVP in our Banking and Capital Markets business unit, the consumer lending industry is seeing new players that are going beyond the previous generation of innovation which digitized some parts of the lending experience (e.g. Lending Tree).  Now we are seeing more sophisticated new models – ones that allow simple peer-to-peer lending, among other things.

I’ve asked him to share his thoughts on this topic.  Balaji has 15 years of experience spanning business consulting, IT strategy and strategic sourcing.  He has been with Infosys for 6 years, prior to which he was with KPMG-AFF India and Feedback Ventures.  At Infosys, he leads the solutions consulting group for our financial services unit. 

Stay tuned for his blog…

March 8, 2007

Flat World CIOs - Preparing for the Corner Office

by Sandeep Dadlani, AVP, Retail and CPG Business Unit 

I looked in disbelief at the CIO of a small fast food chain when he asked “Can you help set the menus of all my fast-food outlets and manage the menus from Bangalore?”

No, he wasn’t talking about the menus that run some weekly batch jobs on his HP servers in his datacenter…He was talking about the actual menus with combo deals with fries or fruit salad as an option.  And, to manage that from Bangalore would mean at least a few menu management experts who would take sales data from all over the world, analyze them, take inputs from the company’s menu experts and then set/reset the menus.

Of course it can all be done in Bangalore…that wasn’t the fascinating fact. The most fascinating thing was that the question was coming from the CIO and not the CEO. Such an activity should have been the CEO or CFO’s priority but here was the CIO taking it up in full earnest.

CIOs have always been challenged with being part of the business strategy and using IT to enable business. Their objective has been to listen to their business partners and partner with them on their business ideas to implement them. But the Flat World CIO has a bigger mandate…My last few meetings with leading CIOs of Fortune 1000 companies have revealed that the CIO is well suited to take on another role – that of a flat-world evangelist and champion, that of an originator of business ideas and this is not just about offshoring.

Take for example, the CIO of a large consumer products company who started throwing out ideas in our first meeting on how we could become the analytics engine for his category managers. By using our brand managers in different geographies to analyze sales data and spew insightful reports we could allow his category managers to “Make Money from Information” instead of getting stuck in myriad reporting capabilities (or the lack of it) within the organization and the geography. This CIO was again not limiting himself to offshoring but he was using his experience at offshoring IT applications and basic business processes like F&A and HR. This experience was helping him in thinking globally without limitations. I can say for sure that this CIO would be a true friend of the VP of Marketing because both have the same vision.

Or for example the CIO of a large retailer who eagerly looks forward to the next downturn in the economy where most of the competitors slow down in spending on new initiatives. This CIO actually picks up the pace during a downturn in terms of taking business ideas proactively to his business partners and investing in those ideas “while the competitors are sleeping” as he says. No wonder, this retailer is one of the most successful in its league. It knows how to “Win in the turns.”

All in all, the more forward-looking CIOs, lets call them Flat World CIOs, are taking on their roles seriously as flat-world evangelists. They are best suited to this role for the following reasons:
- They have been exposed to a more global environment more than other CXOs
- In most companies, the IT department today is the most multi-cultural and multi-geographic environment
- They have first access to most of the core information that runs the company

These flat World CIOs tend to be the first to take up new business ideas that address each of the four flat world shifts. In a sense, they are assuming the defacto role of CEO without any limitations or boundaries to their thinking. It is no wonder that these CIOs are known in the industry to be the most successful.

March 7, 2007

Efficient operations are everyone's business

Sandeep Dadlani, from the Infosys retail and consumer products business unit, says that increasingly he has been seeing CIOs taking a leadership role in driving operational changes.  I've asked him to share his thoughts based on recent discussions and meetings with client executives.

Sandeep Dadlani is an AVP responsible for strategic relationships for Retail & CPG business unit at Infosys. He has over a decade of operations, product management and IT consulting experience. He has been with Infosys for over 6 years. Prior to Infosys he worked with Citibank in India, transitioning parts of their cash management operations to their captive and managing some of their global cash management product portfolio. Sandeep holds an MBA in Finance from Bombay University in India and a Bachelors in Electronics Engineering from MS University, Baroda, India.

March 1, 2007

Making Information Elephants Dance

by "Radha" Anantha Radhakrishnan, AVP, Infosys Retail and CPG Business Unit

I have always been fascinated by the power, largeness and might of an elephant and wondered many a time how this power could be unleashed many folds, if it can be more agile and made to dance, while retaining its might and majesty.

Having worked in the Retail and CPG industry on the business side as well as consulting side over the last many years, I have had the opportunity to see the sheer magnitude of effort, energy and time which goes into collecting and investing in information across the many different players in the whole value chain.

There are so many types of data  – sales, inventory, consumer, shopper, price, promotion, deals, orders, forecasts, service levels etc – adding up to billions of terabytes of data.

These billions of terabytes and the investments made to continuously collect them form the retail industry "information elephant”.

In the increasingly flat world marked by palpable emergence of new types of consumers (Prosumers, Transumers, Millennials et al), multiple new channels, new store formats, increased competition along with emerging new geo markets (China, India, eastern Europe etc.), each player in the retail value chain needs to figure out the best possible way to make money from the information elephant.

For the information elephant to dance and for the players in the retail value chain to make money from it, there are many opportunities and challenges.  Surprisingly, none of the big ones have to do with technology. They have to do with changing mindsets to think “flat world”:  Think enterprise, think actionable insights, POR (Point Of Relevance) instead of POS (Point of Sale). 
They have to do with thinking about “information turns” just as retailers are used to thinking about inventory turns.

  • How well is the data collected been used meaningfully across functional silos within the enterprise and leveraged across the value chain?
  • Is this data converted to information, knowledge and actionable insights?
  • Is the actionable insight made available to the appropriate people at the “Point of Relevance” (POR) to be able to decide?
  • Is the company’s focus on information storage rather then “information turns”?

In the flat world with dispersed and diversified value chains on the one side, leading to decreasing economies of scope and scale, and on the other side a consumer base which is increasingly stating that One Size, Color, Shape, Taste will not Fit All –- the players who can make their information elephant dance are going to be the winners.

Everyone who matters in the value chain has built its own information elephant, painstakingly at that. The time has come to make that elephant dance and increase the information turns –- It is the only way to succeed in a flattening world.

Feeding the information elephant

Recently, I came across an article in "Grocery Headquarters", a grocery retailer publication, quoting Anantha Radhakrishnan of Infosys.

In the article, he says that retailers and suppliers should focus on using information to understand the "point of relevance", the moment at which the consumer is making a purchase decision, which might not necessarily be at the point of sale.

To quote the article:

"'You have a whole set of good technologies like business intelligence and portal technologies, which are the enveloping layers, and you have three crucial technologies -- wireless, RFID and VoIP -- that can all be leveraged in a beautiful way to orchestrate delivering this information and making money from it by reaching it down to the point of relevance for the consumer,' he says.

"Obviously, incorporating these technologies comes at a cost, but experts say making an investment in analytics should not be seen as a barrier to leveraging consumer data. Instead, they say, grocers need to use these technologies in order to see a substantial return on investment by boosting shopper loyalty.  

"'The important thing is that the ROI exists, because you've already made a large investment in information with consumer data,' says Radhakrishnan. 'The analytic technology is not the killer in terms of investment. You already bought an elephant, which is a data warehouse. You now need to feed the elephant in order to keep it alive and get better results from having invested in it.'"

Intrigued, I have asked him to share more of his thoughts on this blog.  But let me introduce him first. 

Anantha Radhakrishnan, “Radha” for short, is an Associate Vice President and key member of the management team for Infosys' Retail, Distribution and Consumer Products business unit. He is an industry veteran with two decades of experience in the global consumer products and US retail industry.  Radha has held various responsibilities across multiple business functions such as category management, supply chain, marketing and customer service. At Infosys, Radha works with retail and consumer products clients, helping them design, implement and realize benefits from large scale transformations.  He holds an MBA from Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Lucknow, and a BE (Honours) in Engineering from National Institute of Technology (NIT), Tiruchirapalli.