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March 26, 2009


As Service Oriented Architecture is becoming more and mainstream and enterprises start reaping the benefits of implementing them, there is a general trend in SOA implementation that each and every functionality be exposed as web service (read SOAP based service).

Many enterprises and external facing web sites have started following this and getting trapped into unduly excessive larger time to market and in turn losing business opportunities to competitors or else joining another failed SOA initiative.

If you happen to be part of team implementing SOA or following trends in web services implementation, surely you would have come across terms like Service Contracts, Policies, Web Services standards like WS* specifications–> WS- Reliable Messaging; WS-Security; WS-Interoperability; WS- Transaction; WS-policy; Service Discovery, Service registry, Service Governance, Service Versioning, SOAP message structure (header/body/faults), SOAP Protocols, XML Schema, etc..etc.

Each of the above term is quiet heavy and adds to complexity in rolling out web services based large SOA initiatives, however successfully dealing with these complexities fetches several benefits though.

To realize the Enterprise SOA vision and in turn expose functionality as services, does each one of the initiative have to go through this pain of dealing with so many complexities?

Probably not, and hence to address some of these complexities in web services implementation, there is a new style of web services architecture called REST (Representational State Transfer).

Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style of building services on World Wide Web (WWW). It does so by leveraging the existing WWW architecture(http being backbone) which provides a way to navigate through web of resources like URLs, static or dynamic pages, Files, images, videos, and so on. REST logically organizes these resources and expose them through URIs to be consumed by external world. REST is a way or style to design services to be exposed in this manner. It is not proprietary to Java or .Net or any other technology or platform.

Some analyst address REST as simple XML without SOAP.

Before we dwell deep in to REST principles, let us revisit the key tenets of SOA

1. Boundaries are Explicit

2. Services are Autonomous

3. Services share schema and contract, not class

4. Service compatibility is determined based on policy

On the similar lines, REST based services are to built by using certain fundamental principles as below

1.Every Resource that merits being identified should be identified by Unique Id; it should be noun and not verb. To model REST based services, Map URIs to resource which may or may not represent application logic.

e.g.  identifies Order with an order id 1234. Order details like for which customer, list of products, total amount etc. can be captured as part of content of the document.  Customer, product are also potential resource and can also be uniquely identified using URIs.

2. Once URIs are identified for a resource, Use these id’s or URIs to link them together

A customer placed sample Order is depicted as follows

<Order ref   =””/>

                <amount> 15000 </amount>

<product ref= “” />

<customer ref =” />


3. Http methods are means to interact with these URIs

Use Standard http methods like GET (Read), POST (Create or Append), PUT (Update), DELETE (delete) to operate on these identified resources. These are the only verbs or methods/operations available in REST world as against many operations available under service in SOAP world.

Following is the mapping of SOAP operations to REST methods

ManageOrder SOAP Operations
ManageOrder REST Operations
GetOrder (OrderId string)
InsertOrder (OrderObj Object)
UpdateOrder(OrderObj Object)
DeleteOrder (OrderId string)

 Resources are updated by sending the updated document or XML to the URL.

E.g. In RESTful system an Order will be updated by submitting the updated Order XML or document at the respective URI.

4. Allow multiple representation for same resource

Same Order can be represented in XML, Word Document, PDF, (X) HTML, JSON, ATOM and in various other formats.

5.Communication with Resource should be always stateless, if needed implement transactions through resource organization.

E.g. Save Checked out basket as resource and provide the Resource URL.

With the ground covered so far, by now certainly there are questions popping up, how can it deal with the complexities of business operations? Can it handle Transactions, Message Reliability, and Security; can it be used to build interoperable system, are organizations implementing REST? Is it main stream? Etc. Etc.

While I will try to deal with some of these over next a few blogs, here are some starters.

Google, photo site flickr, Yahoo services, and several other social sites like Facebook are built using REST based services. Amazon and ebay provides both SOAP and REST based services.

One word of caution though, REST will not completely replace SOAP Services, nor it is intended to, but some scenarios would definitely be easily addressed through REST than SOAP based Services. In other words REST can definitely start resting SOAP in some enterprise scenarios.

Before i conclude, a word on vendor support, REST is supported by almost all the top vendors including Microsoft through its Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) as part of .Net 3.5 framework. MS also provides REST services template through REST starter kit , quiet helpful in getting started.

March 23, 2009

"Oslo" SDK January 2009 CTP (Refresh)!

MS decided to "refresh" the January CTP to fix two issues with “three-pane mode” sample in Intellipad. This was mainly done because MS recieved quite a few reports of instability and performance issues with large grammars. You can download the "refreshed" Oslo SDK January CTP from here. Hope going forward we don't see the Intellipad crashing often!

March 19, 2009

Blend 3 and SL 3 Preview available

In Mix 2009 earlier today, Scott Guthrie annouced availability of Expression Blend 3 and Silverlight 3 with interesting new features. Check out some of them here. Also you can view the sessions at Mix live from here.

March 11, 2009

Next Generation Software Factories

We are at the forefront of a revolution in Software Development paradigms. Over the years, we’ve moved way ahead from struggling to manage the computer memory for our programs to writing globally distributed software services. But software development continues to be a dumb old process of writing reams of design documents, understanding and writing tons of lines of code.

In this new series titled “Next Generation Software Factories”, I will be discussing some ideas, outlooks and theories  of creating “intelligent” Software, based on our research. An intelligent software is one that understands its environment, is autonomous, reactive, proactive and social. Every now and then, I shall implement some of the ideas using upcoming Microsoft Technologies like Oslo and other technologies which will enable such development.

I’ll start off next, with a series of posts where I attempt to discuss the various aspects of an Intelligent Software.

Pick up dates for Outlook Calendar Appointments

Earlier today I came across this very interesting blog on how you can use english words to specify dates without having to use the Date dropdown control.

I tried adding Indian holidays to the Calendar and then search for them, but it didn't work. Let me see if I can figure out a way to do this, but the concept of finding dates by names is great. If you know how to add personal named dates, do share?

ASP.NET MVC eBook Tutorial released

Before actual ship of ASP.Net MVC framework Scott Guthrie has provided link to MVC eBook tutorial. Find details here. I feel this will be great help to start with this exciting framework.

March 3, 2009

Oslo Repository creation not successful?

A couple of weeks back I was trying to set up the Olso SDK (January 2009 CTP) on my system when I met with this problem. What was the problem? The problem was that whenever the setup tried to install the Repository database, it failed. The error message that I saw on the console didn’t help me much, neither did the entry in the RepositorySetup.log in the temp folder. Something which was very evident while going through the setup was that Repository setup GUI only supported creating a repository database on the default instance on the current machine. Another restriction is that the Oslo repository database can only be created on the 2008 version of SQL Server. Now the resolution to this problem was to do the setup by running the CreateRepository.exe by specifying the correct instance name of the SQL Server 2008 on our machine using /s switch.

The problem, cause and the resolution is given below:


Oslo Repository creation not successful.

The RepositorySetup.log in temp folder says:
[2/19/2009 - 9:1:59]Start execution of: "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Repository\CreateRepository.exe" /s:. /v+
Microsoft (R) code name "Oslo" Repository Creation Tool version 3.0.1619.5
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Message: Creating repository database ...
Cannot assign a default value to a local variable.
Must declare the scalar variable "@login".
[2/19/2009 - 9:2:0]Completed execution of: "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Repository\CreateRepository.exe" /s:. /v+


  • The Repository setup GUI only supports creating a repository database on the default instance on the current machine.
  • A Repository database can only be created on the 2008 version of SQL Server.


Run the CreateRepository.exe by specifying the actual instance using the /s switch.

D:\MS Oslo\My Samples\GeeksModel>"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Repository\CreateRe
pository.exe" /s:<MachineName>\<DBInstanceName> /v+
Microsoft (R) code name "Oslo" Repository Creation Tool version 3.0.1619.5
Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Message: Creating repository database ...
Created repository database Repository on SQL Instance :<MachineName>\<DBInstanceName>
Message: Repository database statistics:
Message: Repository Status: Status=ONLINE, Updateability=READ_WRITE, UserAccess=
MULTI_USER, Recovery=SIMPLE, Version=655, Collation=Latin1_General_CI_AS, SQLSor
tOrder=0, IsAnsiNullsEnabled, IsArithmeticAbortEnabled, IsAutoCreateStatistics,
IsAutoUpdateStatistics, IsFullTextEnabled, IsLocalCursorsDefault
Message: Repository Size:    2048.00 MB
Message: Repository Owner: sa
Message: Repository Created: Feb 19 2009

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